Nutrition and Supplements

Nutrition and Supplements

18 September 2019 Stephen Arnold Uncategorized

Welcome to Stephen Arnold’s Nutrition Guide.

As used by:

INBA National Fitness Model Champion Sue Quartermaine

INBA Bikini Pro Steph Brooks

WBFF National Bikini Champion Misty Morton

ICN International Bikini Champion Kirbie Jones 

ICN International Fitness Champion Aishling Waldron

ICN International Fitness Champion Jo Robinson

ICN International Sports Champion Aniella Leeks

ICN Pro Bikini Model Ana Paula

ICN Pro Sports Model Amy Bonavita

Miss Galaxy Australia 2017 Elise Nazarri

Supplementation is now almost an essential part in achieving optimal health and a great tool in optimizing maximal muscle growth and fat loss.

The first part in designing a supplementation protocol should be designed to take you to optimal health.

The second part would be to fix or support any possible dysfunctions, deficiencies or imbalances’ that you may have within your biology.

The third part is then ensuring that we maximize the results we achieve from our training and maximise our performance.

Part 1.

Achieving optimal health

Supplementation to achieve optimal health will depend solely on the individual. We can’t begin to design the perfect supplementation protocol for each individual but what we can do is give you the five key supplements that nearly every human on earth will benefit from.

Vitamin D

Multi Vit



Fish Oil

The benefits of Vitamin D:

Plays a substantial role in the regulation of calcium

Supports maintenance of phosphorus levels in the blood.

Plays a role in the protection against diabetes, arthritis, and heart attacks

The benefits of Magnesium:

Aids in sleep, rest and recovery

Helps to fight the effects of stress

Improves cognitive function

Improves protein synthesis (helps build muscle)

Improves digestion

The benefits of fish oil:

Lowers cortisol

Fights stress

Improves protein synthesis

Improves insulin sensitivity

Improves hair and skin quality

Aids athletic performance

Anti inflammatory.


You need to be looking at about 0.05 litres of water per kg of bodyweight per day.

So let’s do the Maths quickly:

An average male weighing 80Kg would need about 4 litres of water per day.

Remember this is a rough guide and more is by no means better.

Part 3.
Optimising your performance and adaptions


  • Promotes lean muscle
  • Aids in muscle recovery
  • Promotes muscle strength

Eating every 2-to-3 hours sometimes just isn’t possible for some people so this is where protein powders are super handy. Protein supplements act fast and easily allow you to achieve your daily protein intake, especially after a workout. Whey protein isolate is digested quickly and easily so it’s the most ideal post workout protein source. Others include Casein, Soy, Egg and Plant Protein.

Whey Protein Isolate is made of smaller molecules so it’s better absorbed than regular Whey Protein. It’s low fat and low carb while Casein protein is better taken closer to sleep to provide long term protein absorption.

Amino Acids

Amino acids are compounds that form the building blocks of protein. When protein is digested it’s broken down into specific amino acids. These new proteins make up your skin, muscle, bones, heart and eyes.There are around 20 to 22 standard amino acids, of which 8 to 10 of them are considered essential, which means that you need them in your diet to function properly, as we cannot synthesize them from other materials.

Essential Amino Acids (EAA’s)

  • Great for growth, recovery and repair of muscle tissue
  • Prevents muscle tissue breakdown
  • Can be used as an energy source and delay onset of muscular fatigue.
  • Some EAAs (in particular isoleucine) can aid in the replenishment of glycogen stores

Essential amino acids are those necessary for good health that can’t be synthesised by the body. There are approximately nine amino acids considered essential that form the foundation of your health whilst optimizing micronutrients. EAAs provide fuel for growth, health, and good functioning of the body.

The nine essential amino acids are Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine, Histidine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine and Tryptophan.


  • Aids in muscle growth
  • Supports a healthy immune system
  • Aids in muscle recovery (reduces muscle catabolism)

This amino acid is found in protein and plays a vital role in immune system health. Glutamine can also help build muscle mass.

Glutamine is great for post workout supplementation because it has the ability to re-synthesize muscle glycogen and glutamine levels sometimes depleted during exercise without the release of insulin.


  • Can increase workout intensity
  • Help build muscle mass
  • Aids in better muscular contraction and performance
  • Can help you train at a higher frequency
  • Aids in increasing metabolic rate

Creatine is one of the most important supplements found to boost strength and energy during exercise allowing you to lift heavier for longer. It’s a by-product of amino acid metabolites and whilst there’s a few forms available, creatine monohydrate is the best-tested and most popular.   

Dextrose or any carb powder

  • Helps elevate your insulin to a point which triggers the body to start storing nutrients.
  • Replenishes Glycogen stores

Dextrose is a simple carbohydrate, or monosaccharide, that is also known as glucose. Your body can absorb dextrose quicker compared to other types of carbs (ie complex carbohydrates such as spaghetti). And with carbohydrates being your primary source of energy, incorporating dextrose particularly post work out can be beneficial in replenishing glycogen stores.

When you work out, because your muscles take the frontline over fat stores due to their depleted energy stores, the nutrients you take in – including carbohydrates like Dextrose – head straight for the muscles to be used. This is essential to getting your muscles into a state where they start the healing process quickly.


L-Citrulline is an amino acid responsible for reducing muscle fatigue and improved endurance for both aerobic and anaerobic prolonged exercise.

Beta Alanine

Beta Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid which can boost the synthesis of carnosine. This can help lessen muscle fatigue leading to more intense and longer training sessions.

Many users experience intense vasodilatation/pumps from the very first dose of Beta Alanine as carnosine is a powerful precursor in generating nitric oxide synthase.

A known and very common side effect of Beta Alanine (especially on first use) is tingling/itching of the skin, particularly the hands and face/around the mouth. This sensation passes quite quickly and lessens after repeated use. Beta Alanine is commonly used in premixed pre-workout supplements.

Training Supplements:


10g EAA




15-20g  DEXTROSE

10g EAA

5-10g BCAA



30-40g WHEY

Other factors:

Most importantly, listen to your body. If you’re getting weaker, going into your sessions with less energy, picking up little niggling injuries, you could be over training and need to recover better or train less for a short period. Your body will generally tell you when you are fatigued!

Compression wear, ice baths, stretching after training, coastal walks, supplements, meditation and yoga are all great tools to aid recovery.

Be careful that you don’t blunt your adaptations though! Inflammation immediately after training is an essential part of the adaptation process so don’t try to reduce it too soon. This is why vitamin C and anti-inflammatories post work out aren’t recommended.

They will reduce fatigue but they will also reduce the adaptations that you see.

Good quality sleep is the king pin of recovery!

 “You can never over train but you can under recover”


Your body REQUIRES certain nutrients to complete its essential processes and continue its day-to-day function.  If you don’t provide them in your dietary consumption, your body WILL take them from wherever they happen to be stored in your body. 

If it happens to be protein, the first place your body will take proteins from is your muscles. BAD NEWS for those of us looking to build muscle.

Another very interesting thing to make note of: Digestion requires the presence of many vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and co-enzymes to break down and absorb the food you eat. 

If you’re eating a lot of junk foods and processed foods that have NO essential vitamins and nutrients, where do YOU think they come from?

There are three important questions:

What are Macro nutrients?

What are Calories?

What is Nutrient timing?

We could talk forever about this but let’s just stick to the basics for now! The information here is enough to get you results.


The word protein comes from the Greek word proton which means ‘primary building block’.

When considering a meal plan start with protein and make the rest of your calories up from there. Good sources of protein come from: Meat, eggs, protein powders etc.

When we say meat, we do mean good quality meat such as chicken, beef, turkey not Mcdonalds beefburgers and salami.


‘Carbs’ are broken down and used as fuel for the central nervous system and working muscles. Carbohydrates come in the form of sugars, starches and fiber, examples are listed below.

Within the classification of ‘carbs’ there are sub-categories, simple and complex carbs. Simple carbs are sources which compose of one or two molecules, these are faster absorbed and produce a faster release of energy. Simple carbs such as: table sugar, fizzy drinks, sweets and syrups are classed as empty calories as they contain no to little nutritional value and can contribute to rapid weight gain.

Complex carbs contain 3 molecules and release energy at a slower, more sustained rate. Examples would be wholegrains and vegetables.

Carbohydrates are broken down and absorbed through the small intestine into the bloodstream where they are taken to the liver, if they aren’t needed immediately for energy then they will be stored in the liver or muscle as glycogen. If glycogen stores are full then the excess gets transported and stored in fat cells. Now you can see how we gain body fat right???!!!!

Carbohydrates are an essential part of our diet, weight loss and muscle growth will both be hindered by a lack of this macronutrient.


Fats are an essential nutrient used by the body for energy, Cognitive function, vitamin absorption and hormone production and regulation. Wow, there’s some pretty important roles for dietary fats.

Don’t be scared to eat fats. Without fats we would soon find ourselves in poor health.

There are 2 types of Fats split into 5 sub categories:





coconut oil



Promote healthy skin, reduce heart disease

            Olive and canola oil, almonds, walnuts, avocados.


These help to raise good cholesterol


            Soy oil


These lower blood pressure and lower bad cholesterol



Trans Fats

Are what form when oils harden through a process called hydrogenation, trans fats are often used to make foods last longer and are the un-healthy fats. Try to avoid these fats, found in fast foods, restaurants and packaged foods, these have little or no health benefits.

Fat contains 9 calories per gram and a nice base line is to never drop below a total of 20% fat in your daily caloric intake. Trying to achieve a level of Omega 3, saturated and unsaturated.

So now we know about Macro Nutrients let’s have a look at how many we should be eating per day. Calories in vs calories out is the ‘center pin’ of weight management, it’s not everything as there can be other factors that affect it but it’s the basis of the weight management principle.

Your daily caloric requirement is a calculation made from your lean body mass + daily activity.

Firstly we need to know your Lean Body Mass.

Lean body mass is calculated by determining your total weight minus all the fat.

100kg client at 10% bodyfat = a lean mass of 90 kgs. If you don’t know your body fat % you can either find a body scanner, buy a hand held device off the internet, go see a PT or estimate it from looking at this chart.

Then use the Sterling- Pasmore Equation

Daily caloric requirements = lean mass in kgs x 30. (You need about 30 calories per day to support 1 kg of muscle weight). Having muscle enables your body to metabolise calories even at rest.

This is a very basic way to calculate your basal metabolic rate, Basal means the total you need at complete rest.

Then add in daily activity.

BMR x 1.2 Inactive job with no training

BMR x 1.375 Inactive job with light training

BMR x 1.55 Moderately active, looking to grow a bit and lean out.

BMR x 1.75 Moderately active, looking to grow muscle

BMR x 2 Very active, looking to grow.

Digesting food also contributes towards calorie expenditure and helps build an efficient metabolism.

If you’ve just done the calculations and think “that looks like a lot of calories’” then you’re possibly under eating and therefore hindering your ability to metabolize body fat. You need to have an efficient metabolism and then be in a maximum 20% deficit of total daily calorie requirements to burn fat optimally. And achieving optimal results is what this document is designed for.

It drives me crazy when I so often get clients come to me with ‘skinny fat’ bodies eating 1,400 calories and wondering why they look and feel terrible!!! It’s then a very slow and painful process to take them back up to base calories, all the while trying to avoid further fat gain and then get them to a sensible deficit and try and lose fat.

Don’t make the mistake of under eating and over exercising!!! Eat healthy and eat regularly. Building an efficient metabolism is a good goal to have.

If you feel like you have been under eating then I suggest you slowly increase your calories back up to base line, if you see your weight start to creep up also you may need to increase exercise to counteract the increased calories for a short time. When you are at base calories, wait for your weight to stabilize and then take yourself into a deficit to achieve fat loss. Don’t stay in a deficit for too long though, put yourself back to base for a week every 6-8 weeks.

Remember, 20% deficit is the maximum you ever want to be so if you increase your training or work load then you may need to increase your calories also.

If you’ve been in a large deficit for a long time it may be worth seeking the assistance of a professional or if you can take yourself above base line and stay there for a while before going back into a deficit.

We now know what macro nutrients are, what calories are and how many we should have so now let’s look at nutrient timing.

When we should eat and when we should eat for maximal results.

This is a very basic and simple formula that provides excellent results.

Moderate protein and high fat first thing in the morning.

Carbs around training.

Protein and veg at night.

There’s no ifs and buts about this! Everyone has different opinions but for optimal results this formula is the most effective for the majority population.

If you have to train in the morning or late at night then move the three micro cycles around to suit but carbs only around training.

If you’re looking to build muscle then carbs before and after if you’re looking for fat loss then maybe carbs after only.

Example below.


150g Red Meat

20g Almonds

50g Mixed Veg


150g Red Meat

50g Avocado

50g mixed veg


150g White Meat

350g Sweet Potato

15g EAA







10-15g EAA

10-15g BCAA



CALS: 189 F:0 C:23 P:70

40g WHEY



100g White Meat

350g Sweet Potato

110g Banana


150g Red Meat (or salmon)

143g Broccoli
20g almonds


200g White fish

211g Green Beans

Total Calories 3022.

Final words on Nutrition:

There’s no set formula for how much carbs, fats and protein you should have per day but as a basic rule of thumb is 2.2 grams of protein per kg of bodyweight as a minimum and the amount of carbs you consume should be dependent on a number of factors. The closer you are to the equator that you originate from, the more carb tolerant you’ll probably be, the further away from the equator the less carb tolerant you’ll probably be.



  • 250g blueberries, blackberries, raspberries,
  • 450g strawberries
  • 1 Medium Banana
  • 1 Apple
  • 1 Pear
  • 200g Mango
  • 1x Large Peach
  • 2x Nectarines

Red Meat:

  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Kangaroo
  • Goat
  • Salmon/Trout
  • Bison/Buffalo

White Meat:

  • Chicken
  • Turkey
  • White Fish (+30g Serving Size)
  • Prawns
  • Mussels (+30g Serving Size)
  • Octopus/squid (+3g Serving Size)


  • Leafy Greens
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Broccoli
  • Chinese vegetables (i.e. Bok Choi)
  • Carrots
  • Squash
  • Celery
  • Asparagus
  • Tomato
  • Kognac Noodles
  • Beans
  • Peas
  • Corn


  • Nuts (40g)
  • Avocado (100g)
  • Butter, Coconut Oil, MCT Oil, Olive Oil, Desiccated Coconut (20g)


  • Psyllium Husk
  • Flax Hulls
  • Inulin


  • Rice (70g raw, 250g cooked)
  • Sweet potato (350g raw, 300g cooked)
  • Maple syrup/honey (75g)


  • Basil
  • Coriander
  • Cinnamon
  • Curry Powder
  • Cumin
  • Dill
  • Garlic
  • Ginger
  • Lemongrass
  • Oregano
  • Parsley
  • Pepper
  • Rosemary
  • Salt
  • Thyme
  • Turmeric
  • Vinegar
  • Chilli, paprika and other nightshades may be used in moderation. However, if you have any digestive issues at all do not use them

Terminology and Nutritional Principles:

  • Don’t be afraid to eat.
  • Don’t be afraid to invest in yourself.
  • Take the time to learn what your body needs to get the results you’re after.
  • This nutrition plan is here to help you find exactly that!

Your body REQUIRES certain nutrients to complete its essential processes and continue its day-to-day function. If you don’t provide them in your dietary consumption, your body WILL take them from wherever they happen to be stored in your body.

If it happens to be protein, the first place your body will take proteins from is your muscles. BAD NEWS for those of us looking to build muscle.

Another very interesting thing to make note of:

Digestion requires the presence of many vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and co-enzymes to break down and absorb the food you eat, hence the digestive protocol listed below the supplements on page 2.

He who uses carbohydrates BEST, wins! NOT he who uses the MOST carbohydrates! Fuel your body when it needs it and, the rest of the time, try to optimize your hormone levels, keep inflammation down, and supply enough protein to build muscles.

Replenishing glycogen DURING and IMMEDIATELY AFTER training has been shown to increase glucose uptake by up to 300% compared to not taking advantage of the 3-hour window post-workout. Hence, carb meals around training only (highlighted in blue).

Every single thing you eat dictates your hormonal state.  Carbs cause your body to release certain hormones. Proteins cause your body to release certain hormones, and so do fats. Hence, the colour coded macro cycles in the diet plan.

Fats in the morning

Carbs around training

Lean in the other

Manipulating the TIMING of these HORMONES is what makes some people fat, and others, muscular.

“Genetics” just gives some people a greater margin for error, but at the end of the day, foods still affect us all, in the same way.

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